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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2016| January-June  | Volume 16 | Issue 1  
    Online since September 8, 2016

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Awareness of indoor air pollution and prevalence of respiratory symptoms in an urban community in South West Nigeria
OT Afolabi, OF Awopeju, OO Aluko, SA Deji, BB Olaniyan, LC Agbakwuru, OO Oyedele, KR Oni, BO Ojo
January-June 2016, 16(1):33-38
Background: Air pollution is often perceived as an outdoor public health problem but the air in residential buildings, cars and offices can also be polluted. Indoor air pollution (IAP) is the presence of one or more contaminants in the indoor environment that has a degree of human health risk. IAP is a risk factor for respiratory tract infection and is associated with increased risk morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Objective: The present study determined the relationship between awareness of IAP and prevalence of respiratory symptoms. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Respondents were selected using a multistage sampling technique. Data were collected using structured questionnaires with the aid of interviewers. Results: Two hundred and thirty-nine (95.6%) of 250 who were given questionnaires responded. One hundred and fifty (62.8%) of respondents were aware of IAP. The major source of their information was through the radio in 57 (23.8%). One hundred and four (43.5%) prepare food on the corridor with cooking with a kerosene stove, and 211 (88.3%) were using mosquito coil. Shortness of breath was reported by 49 (20.5%) while 25 (10.5%) expectorated phlegm. Respondents with exposure to tobacco smoke in the indoor environment had a 12-fold likelihood of having phlegm and an 8-fold likelihood of having shortness of breath. Conclusion: The level of awareness of IAP by the respondents was low in this study. Indoor smoking was a major determinant of respiratory symptoms. There is thus, a need for widespread health promotion to raise awareness about IAP and its effects.
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Editorial for January-June 2016 issue of Nigerian Journal of Health Sciences
JA Owa
January-June 2016, 16(1):1-1
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Prevalence of symptoms of self-reported knee osteoarthritis in Odo-Ogbe community, Ile-Ife
AO Ojoawo, AO Oyeniran, MOB Olaogun
January-June 2016, 16(1):10-14
Background: Osteoarthritis, (OA) the most common of all the types of arthritis, is a significant public health problem which contributes greatly to disability in the elderly. Community-based prevalence studies of OA in South-Western Nigeria were scanty for referencing. Objective: This study investigated the prevalence of symptoms of self-reported knee OA (KOA) in a heterogeneous community of Odo-Ogbe in Ile-Ife, South-Western Nigeria. Methods: All houses in Odo-Ogbe community were numbered, and all odd numbered houses were selected for the study. Every adult individual of aged 35 years and above living in the selected houses were recruited for the study. The total number of participants was 119 individuals and all of them participated in the study by completing Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index Questionnaire. Their anthropometric variables were also measured. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: There were 99 females and 20 males respondents that participated in the study. Forty-seven (39.5%) had knee pain and other KOA symptoms. Among those with KOA symptoms, six of them were males while 41 (87.2%) of them were females. There was a significant negative relationship (P < 0.001) between academic qualification and pain intensity (−0.292), stiffness (−0.336), and difficulty (−0.267) of participants with KOA. Age was also found to be significantly related (P < 0.001) with all symptom of KOA. Conclusion: The prevalence of symptomatic KOA at Odo-Ogbe community is high, more female were affected, and many of those affected had family history of arthritis.
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Pattern of respiratory diseases among patients seen at the emergency unit of a tertiary health facility in South-West Nigeria
BO Adeniyi, OS Ilesanmi, SO Fadare, AO Akinyugha, GE Erhabor
January-June 2016, 16(1):22-26
Background: Respiratory diseases constitute a large percentage of the medical conditions requiring hospital presentation. The burden of respiratory diseases presenting as emergencies need to be understood. Objective: This study aimed at reviewing the pattern of respiratory diseases in the emergency unit of Federal Medical Centre, Owo. Methods: The records of 914 patients seen with respiratory diseases from January 2007 to December 2012 were reviewed. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Descriptive statistics were done. Chi-square test was used to compare other sociodemographic characteristics and disease-related variables by gender. Level of statistical significant was 5%. Results: The mean age of respondents was 46.5 ± 20 years, 54.9% were 40 years and above. Males were 57.9%, 24% presented as acute conditions, 10.4% were Human immunodeficiency virus, HIV-positive. Death occurred in 7.1% within 24 h of admission. Median length of stay was 1.9 ± 1.4 days. Complicated pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) was diagnosed in 35.1% of the patients followed by pneumonias (26.9%) and acute severe asthma (18.4%). The mean age of male patient was 48.5 ± 20.4 years while female was 43.8 ± 18.9 years, males are significantly older than females P < 0.001. Patients with HIV were younger with mean age 35.9 ± 10.4 years compared with HIV-negative patients, 47.8 ± 20.3 years P < 0.001. More females (13.8%) were HIV-positive compared to males (7.9%), P = 0.004. Conclusion: Complicated PTB and the pneumonias were the leading causes of respiratory emergency in our environment. Not all respiratory cases seen at the emergency were acute condition. Standard precaution should be ensured as every one out of ten patients seen were HIV-positive. Disparities exist in the pattern of respiratory disease across gender.
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Knowledge of puberty, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual behavior among very young female adolescent students' 10-14 years in Agbor Metropolis, Nigeria
O Agofure, MO Iyama
January-June 2016, 16(1):27-32
Background: Adolescence marks the beginning of transition between childhood and adulthood. However, inadequate knowledge about this transition remains a challenge among this group. Objective: This study was therefore designed to investigate the knowledge of puberty, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and sexual behavior among very young female adolescent students aged 10-14 years in Agbor metropolis, Nigeria. Methods: A qualitative and quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted among female adolescent students (10-14 years). The discussants were grouped into ages 10-12 years and 13-14 years. A total of four focus group discussions were conducted among the two groups in two government secondary schools in the study area, while a semi-structured questionnaire which comprised sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge of puberty, STIs, and sexual behavior was used to collect the quantitative data. The qualitative data were analyzed thematically for themes and content, while the quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS Version 15.0. Results: The result shows most of the respondents 96 (97.0%) have heard of puberty and were able to define puberty 82 (85.40%). Furthermore, majority of the respondents have heard of the word human immunodeficiency virus 95 (96.0%) and STI 60 (60.6%), but few 4 (4.0%) have heard of the word contraceptive. In addition, only 12 (12.10%) of the respondents have a boyfriend, out of which only 3 (3.0%) have had sex at the age of 9 and 11 years, respectively. Conclusions: The results shows some of the respondents are already sexually active at that young age, therefore more intervention programs targeting these group of students should be carried out regularly in schools nationwide.
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Cardiac disease in limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2
EJ Ogbemudia, F Odiase
January-June 2016, 16(1):43-46
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy is a rare inheritable muscle disease, and cardiovascular involvement is of prognostic significance. Only a few cases have been reported in our population. We, therefore, present the case of a 20-year-old student who was referred to the cardiac clinic on account of cardiomegaly on routine chest X-ray. He had dyspnoea on exertion, and occasional palpitations. There was a history of difficulty with standing from a sitting position, climbing stairs and raising his upper limbs above his head. His younger sister also has difficulties performing these tasks but has no cardiac symptoms. On examination, there was bilateral proximal muscle weakness with severe atrophy and an abnormal gait. There was sinus bradycardia on electrocardiography. Echocardiography revealed dilated cardiac chambers with ventricular dysfunction.
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Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome somatic comorbidities by osteopathic approach
M Goyal, K Goyal, R Singal, S Sharma, N Arumugam, A Mittal
January-June 2016, 16(1):47-49
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic continuous or intermittent gastrointestinal tract dysfunction encountered by the health professionals. IBS patients are afflicted with intestinal and extraintestinal somatic morbidities. The aim of the present case study was to explore the effect of osteopathic treatment (OT) on somatic comorbidities in IBS patients. The author reported a 43-year-old female case who presented with a headache, abdominal pain, pain in the one-half of the body, lower back pain, increased the frequency of stool passage in a day, with alternating diarrhea or constipation, bloating; with few occasions of nausea and vomiting. The patient had history of 3-year-old hysterectomy and with no other relevant medical history. On endoscopic, colonoscopy, and blood investigations, no abnormality was detected. In this case, the osteopathic diagnosis was made as visceral somatic dysfunction and the OT made the remarkable difference in the patient symptoms as assessed by bowel symptom scale.
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Cytokines responses to human African trypanosomiasis infection in Abraka, Nigeria
C Isaac, OPG Nmorsi, IB Igbinosa
January-June 2016, 16(1):6-9
Background: The staging of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) has been greeted with different benchmarks ranging from white blood cell counts to the use of immune component profiles across regions. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze an array of cytokines to identify potential markers that could be used in the staging of HAT in Nigeria. Methods: Sera and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 35 HAT seropositives from Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria were subjected to cytokines (interleukin-10 [IL-10], tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1α, IL-7, and IL-13) analysis using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Welch t-test and Tukey analysis of variance were used to analyze the data. Results: Comparing mean cytokine levels of weakly, moderately, and strongly positives and between as early and late stages results showed significantly depressed CSF levels of IL-1α and IL-7 while IL-10 was significantly elevated in the strongly positives as well as in the late stage. Conclusion: We strongly suggest that IL-10 could be playing a key role in the immuno-pathology of HAT, thus should be considered a biomarker for the late stage.
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Survey of recreational noise exposure through the use of personal music players in young Nigerian adults
SA Ameye, JAE Eziyi, A Adekunle, O Obasi, YB Amusa
January-June 2016, 16(1):39-42
Background: Personal music players (PMPs) are widely used among young adults of Nigeria, but information on knowledge about their usage and effect on hearing health has not been studied in Nigeria. Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of usage, knowledge and attitude towards loud sound output from PMPs among young Nigerian adults. Methods: This was a prospective, observational survey. Subjects were recruited from a cross-section of undergraduate students of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife. A structured questionnaire that detailed the type and usage of PMPs was administered. Subjects were also asked about episode of adverse hearing effects and the attitude of the respondents to issue of recreational noise and hearing loss. Results: There were 985 respondents, comprising 594 (60.3%) males and 391 (39.7%) females. Of the 985 students, 967 (98.2%) admitted listening to music on PMPs. The mean age of the student was 24.4 (6.0) years, with 891 (92.1%) of the 967 using earphones while listening to music. Mobile phones were the most common PMPs being used by 768 (79.3%) of the respondents. Five hundred and thirty (54.8%) were listening to music for more 1 h per day and 536 (55.4%) were listening to music for more than 3 days per week. Further, 502 (52.3%) were listening to music at the level of loudness, which was self-assessed to be high volume. Conclusions: Mobile phones are the most common PMPs in the present study population and most of the respondent were listening to music at the level of loudness that should call for concern.
  - 2,019 15
Biomechanical effect of sitting postures on sitting load and feet weight in apparently healthy individuals
CE Mbada, MOB Olaogun, OB Oladeji, JO Omole, AO Ogundele
January-June 2016, 16(1):15-21
Background: Controversies exist about the ideal sitting position. Objective: The present study compared sitting load and feet weight in ischial, sacroischial and ischiofemoral support sitting postures. Methods: Apparently healthy individuals who were asymptomatic of low-back pain for at least 6 months were recruited in the present study. Ischial, sacroischial and ischiofemoral support sitting postures were described based on literature. Assessment of sitting weight was carried out with a standard weighing chair, whereas a bathroom weighing scale was used to assess feet weight. Anthropometric variables were assessed following standard procedures. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Statistical significant level was set at P < 0.05. Results: There were 210 participants comprising 113 males and 97 females, aged 17-35 years. Sacroischial sitting weight of 51.86 (6.57) kg was the highest followed by ischiofemoral sitting weight of 49.52 (6.19) kg and ischial sitting weight of 44.87 (5.99) kg; the differences were statistically significant (P = 0.001). Similarly, ischial feet weight was 19.64 (2.49) kg, followed by ischiofemoral feet weight of 15.92 (2.08) kg and sacroischial feet weight of 12.60 (1.90) kg in sitting positions; the differences were statistically significant (P = 0.000). There was a significant correlation between sitting and feet weights in the different sitting postures and each of height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and femoral length (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The ischial sitting position had the least sitting load, whereas the feet bears the least load in sacroischial sitting. The amount of load experienced in sitting, and the corresponding feet weight was influenced by height, weight, BMI and femoral length. It is implied that sitting position with the highest amount of trunk load has the least amount of feet weight and vice versa.
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Association of fasting blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin with some markers of oxidative stress in Ile-Ife, Nigeria
TO Odewole, BO Emma-Okon, FK Agboola, BA Kolawole, OH Onakpoya, OF Fagboun
January-June 2016, 16(1):2-5
Background: Increased oxidative stress is a widely accepted contributor to the development and progression of diabetes mellitus (DM). A lot of work is being done to unravel the mechanisms linking oxidative stress with diabetes and its complications. Objective: The objective was to investigate the relationship between blood glucose levels, glycated haemoglobin and three markers of oxidative stress in DM: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione transferase (GST). Methods: Subjects were consecutive patients with Type 2 DM receiving treatment and apparently healthy controls. Fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, CAT, SOD and GST were assayed in the diabetic subjects and controls using standard procedures. Information on the presence of neuropathy and nephropathy was obtained from case notes, whereas screening for retinopathy was carried out at the Ophthalmology Unit of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex. Data were analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences for Windows, version 17. Results: A total of 115 subjects comprising 65 diabetics and 50 controls were studied. Mean fasting blood glucose, CAT, SOD and GST activities in test and control subjects were 9.12 (0.48) and 4.78 (0.63) mmol/L, 48.20 (2.69) and 63.22 (1.83) units/mg, 53.22 (2.44) and 62.55 (2.68) units/mg and 1.35 (0.09) and 3.47 (0.11) units/mg, respectively. Statistically significant differences were observed when levels of fasting blood sugar, CAT, SOD and GST were compared between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. Diabetic subjects with one or more microvascular complications were found with significantly higher HbA1c levels than those without apparent complication. There was significant negative correlation between fasting blood glucose and all three antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggested that fasting blood sugar modulated levels of antioxidant enzymes while protein glycation plays a role in the development of microvascular complications.
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